Остров кос гърция карта, Самые лучшие пляжи Восточной Македонии - Фракии

Остров кос гърция карта

Значителните разлики в съдържанието и в детайлите на ритуалната дейност, свързана с негативните комплекси, документирани досега, подсказват, че тя е извършвана от хора, които не са имали достатъчно уеднаквени разбирания за необходимостта от спазване на стриктна процедура, прилагането на задължителни предмети и материали и за начина на извършване на ритуалите. Гавалу, Греция. After the publication of the results of researches at numerous sites in the Central Thracian Plain in recent years, it becomes logical to assume that the entry of ritual pits in the life of the inhabitants of Ancient Thrace during the Iron Age began from south by southeast.

Малая Пироговская ул. E-mail: vinokurovn list. Вид с востока и северовостока. Городище Артезиан. Ленинский район Республики Крым Рис. Вид с юга. Ближний план. Городище Артезиан, Ленинский район. Република Крым. A pit or small groups of pits revealed within flat necropolises, mounds, settlements and other archaeological structures should be added to the same type of complexes. Later, burials with other forms became known, which were also associated with ritual activity.

However, in the already significant array of known monuments of this type, the vast majority of pits, ditches and excavations of different dimensions has a geometrically correct shape, which makes different terms suitable for use, provided that they express accurate information about the specific sites. Their number increased significantly after the mids of the old and in the first years of the new century. During this period, including at present, along the routes of the new highways and infrastructure facilities, especially in Southern Bulgaria, several dozen similar sites were mostly partially studied.

The presence of similar pits and ritual negative complexes in some mounds Агре Д. The chronological framework of this type of ritual contexts has sig-nificantly expanded. Recent observations date the beginning of the tradition to the late Neolithic Николов В.

Attempts to interpret negative contexts as containing remains of ritual activity have also been made for Chalcolithic complexes Чернаков Д. According to the publications, the ritual pits discovered in Bulgaria from the time before the Early Iron Age have separate formal analogies with some of those dated to the middle and second half of the 1st millennium BC. This does not at all mean that we can equate the meaning and functions of ritual practices, separated by a several centuries hiatus Нехризов Г.

Formal analogies rather suggest that we are talking about a generally accepted way of performing the same type of actions to provoke a reaction in the intangible world, rather than a specific cult. The findings of recent years give us reason to talk expressly about rituals performed in pits during the first centuries of our era Георгиева Р. Separate even later finds of this kind cannot yet be interpreted with sufficient certainty - whether they are late reminiscences of local traditions or customs introduced by new ethnic groups in the course of migration movements in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages.

Thus, the territory of their distribution increased significantly beyond the borders of Ancient Thrace and covered the Eastern Carpathians and the Northern Black Sea Coast. Unfortunately, the publications of the individual monuments are not always detailed and precise enough for their preliminary interpretation to be accepted unreservedly. On the other hand, a number of monuments, especially from older studies, are suspected to have even contained remnants of ritual activities.

On the other hand, mainly according to older studies a number of monuments are suspected to have contained remnants of ritual activities. Recently this has given rise to serious discussions - both about the interpretation of each individual site and about how to deal with complexes of this type of in general. Recently, a number of researchers have refused an unambiguous interpretation of the sites where such negative contexts are found, arguing that there are no sufficiently indisputable grounds to define them as ritualistic Попов Хр.

The search for an imperative argument to guarantee the objectivity of the interpretation can only be welcomed, but it protects us from errors only in the analysis of specific sites. There are plenty of cases in which indisputable traces of rites in negative complexes with similar formal characteristics have been documented.

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We can now be certain that it is wrong to declare a priori all of the negative complexes in Ancient Thrace as ritualistic, but also it is not acceptable to deny the existence of the negative ritual complexes in general. The strongest argument against the ultimate denial of them are the well-known numerous re-ferences in different ancient and antique texts about the performing of such practices Hom.

Among the reasons for the discrepancy in the assessments and opinions of the specialists for the specific sites are to some extent the unjustified to date attempts to offer a universal unambiguous interpretation of the ritual actions performed in them Георгиева Р.

A significant disadvantage of the publications on the topic so far is the use of only a small part of the known sites, finds and written sources to substantiate the theses. The main hypotheses expressed by the cited authors suggest that rituals performed in negative contexts be linked to the rites specific to the cults of Artemis Phosphoros the Thracian version of the Asia Minor goddess Hecate , Dionysus, the Mother Goddess and the chthonic deities.

Today the acceptance of pit or negative contexts as remains of rites associated with only one cult or deity or even only with certain religious notions can hardly be proven with certainty, given their extreme diversity.

This would mean to assume that the same religious understandings, which wee accompanied by the same or very similar ritual practices, existed in the territory of the Eastern Balkans, in the Carpathian region and in the Northern Black Sea coastal region during the Iron Age - something which has never been a historical reality. The enormous territorial scope and no less significant chronological range of the positioning of negative ritual contexts become decisive proof that a universal interpretation can hardly be proposed for the phenomenon.

One way to overcome this hurdle is to proceed to a broader and more precise analysis of the documented archaeological realia. Thus, sites with sufficiently similar characteristics could be grouped in clusters. At a later stage, on the basis of the specified systematics, it will be possible to look for the directions and forms of cultural and religious influences, the variants of realization of similar rituals, as well as the development of this type of rites throughout time.

Due to the huge number of currently known ritual contexts from the territory of Ancient Thrace, here we will limit ourselves to an overview of the sites relating mainly to the period VII - III century BC.

This is the time of their widest spread throughout the country and the documentation of the greatest variety of this type of ritual practices. First of all, we need to make a few clarifications. The emphasis in previous publications is on the cults associated with Orpheus, Dionysus, Artemis Phosphoros, the Mother Goddess, Hermes, Bendida, Demeter, the Great Samothracian goddesses and several other names known from ancient literature or epigraphic monuments the cited publications contain a complete enough bibliography on the topic - Попов Д.

Most experts generally underestimate the fact that in prehistory and antiquity widespread beliefs and rites related not so much to the official pantheons, but rather to local traditions, superstitions and solving problems of everyday life were widespread in broad circles of society.

The fact that religious ideas are in principle dynamic is also underestimated. The same action, performed several centuries apart, could easily have had a qualitatively different religious meaning. The so-called domestic magic rite, without being necessarily connected to the official religious beliefs, often existed quite aloof from them, has been documented in all historical epochs. Paradoxically, today you cannot find legitimate information about how to tell fortune using coffee, but as an element of everyday life, it is very widespread.

A cup of coffee sediment is very difficult to interpret correctly if the researcher does not have the necessary primary information about the reasons that led to its preservation.

There are several arguments that give us the right to assume that for the negative ritual complexes in question we should also consider the following option for a possible interpretation. Among the characteristic features of large archaeological sites, which contain several dozen to several hundred pits, is the great variety of documented rituals, both within a single field Балабанов П.

In practice, the remains of sacrifices of all kinds of wild and domestic animals, including mussels and fish, are already known from such complexes. Whole animal skeletons are found relatively rarely, as a rule, separate parts are placed in the pits: thighs, heads, shoulders or carcasses without limbs.

In separate cases, the placement of seeds or fruits in a whole ceramic pot has been documented. Of interest is the observation that, in addition to the huge number of fragments — apparently deliberately thrown in — whole ceramic vessels, sometimes deliberately fragmented, are known from such complexes. Of interest is the finding in almost all publications the presence of a relatively large number of spindle whorls and loom weights in the inventory of individual contexts.

Just as inexplicable at the moment is the apparently conscious placement of one or more fragments of ceramic vessels or other objects that are significantly older than the bulk of the finds in a given context. It is difficult to interpret unambiguously the presence in quite a few pits of building ceramics, fragments of escharae, household items, terracotta, graffiti and coins.

The wide range of possible gifts documented in the ritual pits suggests that the latter were not tied to a single addressee. The cases in which only a human skull or separate bones of a human skeleton are placed in the pits can be attributed to the same type of rituals Balabanov P.

The significant differences in the content and in the details of the ritual activity related to the negative complexes documented so far suggest that it was performed by people who did not have a sufficiently unified understanding of the need to follow a strict procedure, the application of mandatory items and materials and about how to perform the rituals.

The observation is an indirect evidence of the relatively lower level of development of the pantheon in the interior of Ancient Thrace than the one known for the big centers of the Mediterranean.

At the same time, they were much more amorphous and multifunctional than orthodox ones. It has long been known that, especially in the rural areas of Hellas and Italy, alongside the official gods a large number of their hypostases or local cults were worshiped.

A large number of different magical rites were performed in their honour. All this does not rule out the possibility, at least in some cases, that rituals performed in pits or ditches dug in advance were deliberately tied to the worship of a particular deity.

According to the reports in the poems of Apollonius of Rhodes and Ovid, one of them is the goddess Hecate. It is possible that particular complexes may be associated with the worship of other cults, as suggested by the authors cited above. It is significant that in Ruse the complex of ritual pits is related to a sanctuary dedicated to Apollo and other gods Върбанов В.

In the same way, the rites associated with their worship do not at all necessarily copy the reality in neighbouring countries. As a rule, it was located near or on the contrary — quite far from populated areas.

According to the archaeological realis that have reached us, some rituals were performed within the boundaries of a certain terrain by the inhabitants of one or many surrounding settlements, in which the excavation of a pit had a main place.

Остров кос гърция карта

It can be assumed that a central place in it was a temple or altar, or some object of religious worship for example, a tree, a rock or other natural phenomenon. The territory of the temenos, according to the prevailing notions was marked, and in some cases surrounded by various structures. Of interest is the hypothesis that sometimes long trenches of different shape and cross-section were made to define its boundaries.

Similar facilities are already known from several sites Тонкова М. This made them extremely amorphous and mobile in time and space. Archaeological excavations to date have shown serious dynamics in the territorial distribution of villages in Ancient Thrace — life in the entirely or partially studied sites, defined as such, rarely lasted more than two hundred years Балабанов П.

This fact alone is enough to understand the fact that most of the places for performing ritual activity changed quite intensively in geographical terms. This does not exclude the possibility that in less dynamic areas of the settlement structures such sites have functioned for a longer period Тонкова М.

On the contrary, in some cases the appearance of ritual pits from the Late Iron Age on a territory inhabited much earlier is documented Балабанов П. With rare exceptions, among the published sites of this type there are no unambiguous traces of permanent marking or fencing of their territory, with the exception of the few mentioned ditches.

A reasoned answer about the presence or absence of a fence in most cases cannot be given both due to the fact that many of the sites have not been fully studied and due to the fact that fences or similar perishable structures leave virtually no traces. The big difference in the linear dimensions of the objects is impressive — from a few to several dozen decares. Whether their development as an area depended on predetermined boundaries or took place spontaneously cannot be determined at this time.

The discovery of separate complexes of several to several dozen pits near large settlements, within which the materials refer to a rather short chronological period, suggests the possibility that they were used by specific families, or small groups of people bound in a different way. At the same time, as a rule, the materials from such contexts are chronologically close to each other — most often within a period of a few to ten or twenty years.

One such example is the two pits from quarter 5 in sector A-I of the Kostadin Cheshma site, which coincided in their formal characteristics, but the bottom of one was 0. On the contrary, it is known that for certain types of magic, traditionally, the rituals should be performed in remote locations selected by another criterion.

We find a curious case for such an exception in the ritual pits located in a cave sanctuary near Silistra Atanasov G. A typical example in this regard can be found in the famous account of the sacrifice performed by Odysseus to summon the spirits of the dead.

It is easy to consider that the remains after the episode described by Homer Hom. It is noteworthy that remains of massive architecture have not been found in none of the fields with ritual pits studied so far in our country. Information about such remains is missing in both excerpts from ancient poems Apoll. This does not necessarily mean that temenos of this type generally lacked buildings or central objects.

It is quite probable, however, that in some cases they had a rickety structure like a simple canopy over an idol made of wood and did not leave sufficiently distinct traces. Given the variety of documented rituals, it is remarkable that in the period under review we observe a relatively strict adherence to certain shapes and dimensions of ritual pits. In more than half of the several thousand known complexes of this type, it is near cylindrical, usually with a slight extension above the lower base.

Their linear dimensions are identical, with the diameters of the openings fluctuating between 0. Their extension usually begins below the upper half, and the maximum diameter is slightly above the bottom. They are usually larger in their linear dimensions, in some cases up to 2. The openings and bottoms of the pits in more than three quarters of the published complexes of both types are, as a rule, horizontal.

At the same time, the stratigraphy of their filling is extremely diverse. Numerous, structures of stones, fragments of ceramics, horizontal layers of different nature deliberately made in them are also documented. Adherence to these specified shapes makes the hypothesis logical that a certain model was deliberately sought when digging the pits. Finally, numerous examples suggest that in specific cases the rites were performed in pits created in advance for other, including utilitarian purposes.

Sometimes significantly increasing their depth for the purpose. Cases are also known in which the bottom of the pit was dug into a relatively hard rock. It seems absolutely logical that in performing some - obviously quite different in their meaning and formal elements - rituals, digging a pit or ditch in itself was an integral part of the necessary actions.

It is completely possible that the meaning of the preparation of a negative complex had a sig-nificance similar to the erection of a shrine or altar. Accepting such hypothesis leads to the consideration of the process of excavation of negative complexes as a universal element in the ritual practice of antiquity Балабанов П.

Therefore, it is methodologically incorrect to look for a universal connection of ritual pits with a specific cult. As is well known, some altars were used to perform religious rites which were completely different in their purpose. By the way, the custom of using pits to perform magical rituals is preserved to this day. It can be qualitatively different, even within a limited area or chronological segment. To illustrate the thesis, we will note the great differences in the occasions and forms of such a rite nowadays — Kurban.

It is a distant reminiscence of sacrifices and ritual feasts in antiquity, but in different parts of the country it is done in quite different ways and in connection with qualitatively different events.

Therefore, in order for the interpretation of such sites to be certain, it must rely on a very wide and precisely selected range of arguments. As mentioned, currently the highest number of ritual pits from the sanctuaries that are or have been studied is mainly on the territory of the Thracian lowlands and the Black Sea coast south of the Balkan Mountains, dating from the end of VII to the middle of III century BC.

This allows us to consider them as complexes of a single category. After the publication of the results of researches at numerous sites in the Central Thracian Plain in recent years, it becomes logical to assume that the entry of ritual pits in the life of the inhabitants of Ancient Thrace during the Iron Age began from south by southeast.

The lack of a sufficient number of studied complexes does not give us certainty about the boundaries of distribution this type of sites had in the beginning and the middle Early Iron Age, although similar have been documented in the north, but again mainly south of the Balkan Mountains Делев П.

From the lands of modern Northern Bulgaria, they are known as incidental finds Китов Г. The modest number of known sites from this period, as well as the fact that they are, as a rule, very limited in area and time of operation is noteworthy. Another interesting detail is the rectangular cross section of the excavations found in some cases from the Early Iron Age Китов Г.

It has only one illustration in ancient literature — the already quoted description of Homer of the ritual performed by Odysseus. At the moment, the documented monuments show that this shape occurs in Thrace only during the Early Iron Age, a phenomenon to which we cannot offer an interpretation. Despite the fact that within the boundaries of some sites there are documented contexts, which can be dated to the end of the 7th century BC, only towards the end of the next century can we talk about a wider distribution of complexes of pits with a characteristic shape, obviously related to ritual activity.

The lack of currently known synchronous sites north of the Balkan Mountains is puzzling, as the close analogies in the documented material culture and burial practices of the inhabitants of Moesia and Dobrudja are relatively well known.

Within only a few decades after the middle of the 5th century BC, they appeared as widespread sites, practically in the whole of Ancient Thrace, as well as in some of its neighbouring lands. The bulk of the known, similar in their functions negative complexes - facilities differing in shape and size, related to the ritual practice in the erection of mounds belong to the same period; excavations containing concentrations of finds that can also be interpreted as objects of this type, isolated excavations of various shapes for which there are reasons to assume they were part of the performance of ritual acts.

It is indicative that during the rescue excavations along the route of Trakia highway north-west of Bourgas only in the roughly 40 km long section up to the border of Karnobat Municipality, similar complexes dating back to the first half of the 4th century BC were discovered every few kilometres Карайотов Ив.

Despite the fact that it is impossible to make precise calculations based on primary publications, today we can certainly state that the greatest spread of cult practices related to the preparation of negative complexes in Ancient Thrace continued in the first three quarters of the IV century BC.

According to the publications, we can attribute to these period more than 2, documented pits, which the researchers define as ritual. By the end of the century, the number of known monuments of this type decreased significantly, and at the beginning of the next fell to a hardly noticeable minimum.

Over the next two centuries, however, they spread widely in what is now southern and eastern Romania, Moldova, southern Ukraine, Crimea and the Taman Peninsula, where only a limited number of similar finds from ancient times have been made. Despite their rapid decline, these rites were preserved to a limited extent in Thrace, as shown by recent discoveries in the town and region Fig. Apart from their relatively late date, they are of interest because, according to their researchers, they are associated with a sanctuary dedicated the beginning of our era to the god Apollo.

Apart from their relatively late date, they are interesting because, according to their researchers, they are associated with a sanctuary dedicated to the beginning of our era of the god Apollo. The results of the archaeological excavations of some late antique and medieval sites in our country present a reason to assume that the rituals associated with negative complexes continued to be performed at the time too, although in an insignificant number of cases.

Some generalizations can be made in the array of the pit sanctuaries from the considered period. After the excavations in the Kostadin Cheshma locality, near the village of Debelt, a similar site was discovered in the Staliyska Mahala locality Бонев Ал. In the following years, several similar ones were studied near the village of Gledachevo Tonkova М. Although only partially studied, with a high degree of certainty some of the sites documented during the excavations of the infrastructure projects, Карайатов Ив.

Most of these complexes are located away from synchronous settlements. They have an area of over 10 decares and contain from several dozen to several hundred pits, located in no particular order. Nevertheless, in each site there are areas with significant concentration and areas with greater distance between separate pits.

Most of the pits in them have similar linear dimensions and shape, but in the outlines of the individual sanctuaries, as a rule, there are several significantly larger ones. Trenches or negative contexts with an irregular shape, the purpose of which cannot be clarified at the moment are not uncommon.

Остров кос гърция карта

All such sites have a relatively short period of intensive operation — most often several decades and only in isolated, so far incidental cases — more than a century Тонкова М. Two main variants can be distinguished relatively clearly within this group of sites.

In the first of them, the fields with pits can hardly be linked to specific significant settlement structures located in the immediate vicinity. This variant with a high degree of certainty includes sites such as those near the villages of Troyanovo and Bratovo, Burgas region, the village of Staliyska Mahala on the banks of the Danube, the village of Gledachevo and the village of Malko Tarnovo, Stara Zagora region, cited above.

Some of the structures linked to this option, although studied by probe during rescue excavations along the routes of the new highways, have an extremely large area and include up to and more negative contexts. Apparently, people living in a relatively large geographical area had been coming here.

Another variant of this group includes the fields with pits, which can be linked to settlements that existed synchronously near them, such as the cases in Koprivlen Делев П.

The sites of this type known so far also fit into short chronological boundaries, despite the fact that life in the settlements on the periphery of which they were found developed long before their appearance and certainly continued long after their abandonment. In general, they are smaller in area and number of contained contexts, compared to larger sites between settlements. It is an interesting observation that the two sites in the area of Nebettepe in Plovdiv differ chronologically, although there are some analogies between them in terms of formal features.

In both variants of this group the rites can be reduced to several main typological groups: sacrifices, libations, lighting a fire on the spot, building some structures, deliberately filling the pit with aggregate with different Fig. Of particular interest among the latter are the fragments of eschars.

Placing them in a pit dug to perform some rituals suggests that they were related to domestic cults. Even if we assume that formally the rituals were meant to make requests to one or several deities, the spectrum of requests and the nature of the results sought were obviously very different.

This allows us to infer that the specific rituals performed in them were associated with the fulfilment of some economic relations, most likely - commercial transactions. Concurrently, other remains of ritual actions from this site lighting of fire in pits, sacrifices of mussels, turtles, cereals, placing various objects and building materials in the embankment of some pits, can be interpreted rather as remains of domestic rites related to the everyday life and individual problems of their authors.

The accumulation of materials now allows suggesting the differentiation of other arrays of similar complexes according to several characteristic features - primarily situational and functional - into separate types.

One of the relatively clearly outlined groups to date should include pits and negative contexts containing remains of ritual activity that are directly related to funeral practices. Several variants can be distinguished among them. The first should include the pits and negative complexes containing remains of rites, found in the embankments of burial mounds or are located next to them and are obviously related to the process of erection of the mound Филов Б.

It should be noted right away that at the moment we do not have information that would allow an unambiguous interpretation of the meaning of the rituals performed in them. It is indicative, for example, that in several cases, in addition to pits in the embankments of mounds, ritual hearths were found, even eschars or other similar facilities Агре Д.

This suggests that the very process of erecting the burial mound was accompanied, at least in some cases, by ritual actions. The multitude of documented archaeological observations of them shows that they had various purposes.

It is quite another question which of them and to what extent were part of the process of building the mound itself, which were an integral part of the burial ritual itself, which should be associated with commemoration practices, and which had a different meaning.

Of interest in this regard are the pits discovered in its immediate vicinity, such as those near the mound of the famous tomb near the village of Starosel, which unfortunately have not been published in an appropriate manner. They have two possible interpretations: preliminary empirical formation of the temenos, on which the mound was then erected or performing rites related to the preparation of the main burial and its covering with a mound, which is assumed for the famous tumulus between the villages of Malomirovo and Zlatinitsa Агре Д.

It is much more complicated to offer an explanation of the negative contexts documented in the embankment of the tumulus itself. The well-known complex of pits in Kukova Mogila Филов Б. The pit documented just below the top of the mound near the village of Bogdanovo Балболова М. An interesting complex, unfortunately again insufficiently researched and published, are the remains of a large hearth, in all probability a pit containing the remains of a stake in the mound, in the embankment of which is placed the famous tomb near the village of Starosel.

It emerged over the upper edge of the crepidoma and apparently came to being in the process of accumulating the mound.

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A similar facility in another mound is vaguely mentioned in the summary report of the excavations in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers Китов Г. At present, the pits documented at the base of mound embankments, the openings of which are situated above the level of the ancient day terrain and of the main burial Агре Д.

In turn, they have several varieties. The most typical example is in the base of the famous mound near the village of Zlatinitsa, where this role was performed by two ditches placed at right angles to each other, east of the main burial pit Агре Д.

A third variant of this group - pits located in the immediate vicinity of the mound - could be associated to a high degree of certainty with rites within the framework of commemorative activities. Of course to make such an interpretation the proximity of time of appearance of the mound and the pits around it must be certain. This, in turn, requires both precise field observations and quality documentation, as well as a bit of luck. The question of the connection between the complexes of ritual pits documented below the level of the ancient terrain and the mounds erected on them also remains debatable Китов Г.

In the first place, the hypothesis that the connection between the already existing complex and Fig. In practice, in cases where the dating of the pits and the mound itself differs by decades, the conclusions for a consciously sought connection or a coincidence cannot be sufficiently substantiated. For the time being we can only state that in the flat necropolises of the same time similar remains are relatively rare.

It is not always possible to link them specifically to one of the funerals performed there, as well as to determine their purpose unambiguously: whether they are part of the funeral rite, remains of funeral rituals or — at least in some cases — remains of triznas. With these complexes it is extremely difficult to answer the question whether they are synchronous or diachronous with the burial they were related to. In the first case, they should be associated with funeral rituals, and in the second - probably with the commemorative rituals.

The question of the nature of the connection of pit sanctuaries with synchronous necropolises discovered in the immediate vicinity also remains open, as is the case with the village of Barutin in the Rhodopes Кисьов К.

Despite the noted formal differences and the difficulties in interpreting the specific sites, the pits associated with the flat necropolises can be merged as an independent variant related to burial rituals. In some sites studied in recent decades, the search for continuity between standard necropolises, ritual pits and later embankment mounds can be assumed.

Most significant in this respect are the results of the many years of research on the site where the famous tumulus in the locality of Yurenya, Nova Zagora once stood Игнатов В. Another group of which quite a small number of sites is currently known are the pits in which contexts are documented carrying information about rites, pits found in synchronous settlements or residential complexes. The modest number of pits as well as the different level of the publications, do not allow their unambiguous interpretation to be offered at the moment.

Among the findings from recent years, two sites reported by M. Tonkova are worth noting Сидерис А. At the same time a significant part of what were initially interpreted as pits in which ritual activities may have taken place are ultimately more logical to be interpreted as standard elements of economic infrastructure.

The documented pits with remains of sacrifices under the hearths in residential premises are relatively rare in settlement structures. The custom was preserved afterwards, in particular until the twentieth century in Strandzha mountain, during the construction of new houses. From the point of view of selecting an adequate methodology for the research of the phenomenon of the ritual activity, related to the preparation of negative contexts and the rites performed in them, it is logical to consider and interpret the identified types of sites mostly independently from each other.

For each of them, a number of problems can be identified right now that deserve independent consideration. On first place, it is necessary to determine effective criteria valid in the interpretation of similar complexes, as well as those related to similar ritual practices.

For example, in the group of negative contexts from the embankments of the timuli, it is still not possible to decide a criterion by which to distinguish between the pits containing the remains of a trizna or a commemoration, as well as those in which a separate rite with another meaning was performed.

Another area of research is the elucidation of the factors that determined the geographical and chronological framework of the emergence and dynamics of the spread of the phenomenon in Ancient Thrace and neighbouring lands. An explanation, for example, is yet to be found of the discrepancy between the relatively short chronological boundaries within which the known complexes of mounds are dated in comparison to those of the pit sanctuaries.

It is especially difficult to distinguish the arrays of rites performed for different purposes. Linking specific rituals to certain cults, even hypothetically, is still not well-argued. An important issue to clarify in this regard, for example, is the already mentioned numerous cases of human sacrifice. The question remains as to the extent to which the sacrifice of a human being can be linked in general to the individual interest and to what extent to the public interest.

However, such a ritual is also possible as a preventive measure or protection from natural disasters, epidemics or other extraordinary events affecting the vital interests of local social structures. The solution of these and other problems is significantly complicated by the lack of established rules in the ritual activity, valid for a long period of time and for the whole territory of Ancient Thrace. Today it is difficult to assess the reasons for the serious differences documented in the remains of rites, even in seemingly identical sites.

Therefore, in addition to the division into categories of negative contexts, it is possible to proceed to the differentiation of groups among them on a territorial and chronological basis. Studies made to date allow the pit sanctuaries from the 6th to the 3rd century BC in southeastern Bulgaria to be separated in such an array, and in another - those located between the middle course of the Maritsa River and the Tundzha River.

According to the results of previous studies, the contexts of the mounds of the wealthy Thracian burials in the areas of the middle course of the Maritsa River and Kazanlak Valley can be separated into an independent group, regardless of the similar sites documented in Strandzha.

Interesting conclusions would be made following a precise comparison of the complexes from the 6th century BC with those from the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 4th century BC.

Of course, the research of the phenomenon cannot be limited to the archaeological sites on the territory of contemporary Bulgaria. Interesting contexts of this type are known in Greece.

The lack of more definite information about their presence in the territories of the Republic of North Macedonia and the European part of the Republic of Turkey cannot be interpreted as proof of their absence there. The presence of similar contexts in Asia Minor and other areas along the Mediterranean coast has long been known. The solution of the specific problems relevant to the monuments from the territory of modern Bulgaria cannot be exhaustive if it does not fit into the large circle of similar studies for sites of this type in the whole Mediterranean region.

The accumulation of enormous empirical material related to the ritual negative contexts of ancient Thrace has in recent decades become a serious provocation to Bulgarian archaeologists and historians. The time comes when it is absolutely necessary to move from the simple registration and documentation of the archaeological sites to the complex comparative analysis which will allow for their more reasonable and objective interpretation.

This will provide good opportunities for their transformation from questionable monuments into an objective source of historical information.

Notes 1 Unfortunately, the overall publication of the excavation results was delayed unjustifiably long. A particular problem is created by the fact that the primary reports the main part of which - in the AOR collections do not always give a clear enough idea of the archaeological realities. Therefore, only objects with a higher degree of certainty in their interpretations will be cited in the exposition. The pits were discovered at the level of the ancient day surface in the immediate vicinity of the crepidoma of the mound.

Golden ass. Silistra, Balabanov P. Агре Д. МаломировоЗлатиница, Елховска община, Ямболски окръг.

Остров кос гърция карта

София, София Балболова М. Богданово, Област Бургаска. Балабанов П. Дебелт, Бургаско. II, Sofia, В: Тракия и околния свят. Търново, Балабанов П. Старо село до с. Ново Паничарево, Община Приморско.

Божкова А. ЛОТ 1. Микрево, Община Струмяни, през г. Малко Тръново, Община Чирпан, югозападен сектор.

Остров кос гърция карта

Предварителни бележки. Варна, — Маленово, Община Стралджа, област Ямбол. Бонев Ал. Монтана Бъчваров К. Върбанов В. Структури от късноелинистическата епоха от Скаидава при с. Батин, Русенско предварително съобщение. Тонкова, Г. Нехризов , Георгиева Р. Георгиева, Т. Спиридонов, М.

Рехо, Етнология на траките. София Георгиева Р. Георгиева Р. Господинов Д. Трояново, община Камено. Делев П. София Дичев Д. Каравелово, Община Тунджа.

Кръстина, Община Камено. Игнатов В. Еленово, Новозагорско. Карайотов Ив. При этом территория пляжа условно делится на три участка, где можно найти как обустроенные многолюдные зоны, так и уединенные дикие места.

Это типичный «семейный» пляж во Фракии, куда семейные пары отправляются за гарантированно спокойным и безопасным отдыхом. Здесь есть все, чтобы утолить и реализовать первичные человеческие потребности, поэтому отдыхающим не обязательно брать с собой огромные рюкзаки со всякой всячиной. Ароги предложит Вам уютные кафешки для вкусного перекуса и разнообразные развлечения, чтобы во время принятия солнечных ванн Вы точно не смогли заскучать.

Пляж Каламица находится в пригороде Кавалы, из-за чего отдыхающих на нем всегда хоть отбавляй. Удобная транспортная развязка, близость отелей, развитая инфраструктура пляжа Действительно, зачем еще куда-то ехать, если можно остановиться в колоритном и уютном городке, и прогуливаться каждый день к пляжу пешком? Если согласны — аренда машины Вам точно ни к чему, ведь Каламица — это настоящий молодежный рай.

Насыщенный дневной отдых ничуть не уступает бурной ночной жизни — веселиться здесь можно круглосуточно, чем и рекомендуем Вам заняться. Если мечтаете видеть со своего пляжа ровную линию горизонта, четко очерчивающую небо от водной глади, и больше ничего — Вам прямая дорога в Маггана!

Именно здесь, как говорится, нет ничего лишнего — только золотой песок, морская лазурь и небесная синева. Еще остроконечные пики зонтов от солнца, выполненных в африканском стиле, и несколько пляжных баров. Ну чем не экзотика для тех, кто устал от переполненных пляжей Восточной Македонии?

Когда хочется сбежать ото всех, нас почему-то особенно тянет к морю. И желательно на тихий, отдаленный пляж, где нет ни души. Такая обстановка располагает к меланхолии и духовному преображению. Кстати, влюбленным парам тоже хочется тишины и уединения, но уже по другой причине.

Чем бы ни было вызвано желание попасть на дикий, но при этом чистый и красивый пляж, исполнить его поможет пляж Мандра в Восточной Македонии. Этот пляж без преувеличения можно назвать мечтой интроверта. Уединенный, огороженный от внешнего мира скалами, он будто бы создан для того, чтобы человек мог уединиться и забыть о своих проблемах и переживаниях. Здесь хочется исключительно плавать и мечтать, мечтать и плавать Дорога к нему довольно тернистая.

Возможно, именно это спасло его от массовых застроек и мусора, который остается после отдыхающих. Paradhisos Парадисос. Mesimvria Паралия-Дионисиу. Греция, Парос, Парикия. Greece, Paros, Parikia Парикия. Патры, Греция. Piraeus - Attica Пирей.

Проспект Ретимнон. Греция rhodes Родос. Thessaloniki - Aristotelous Square Салоники. Стени Дирфиос. Thassos Live from Hotel Angelica Тасос. Ханья, Крит, Греция. Хора Сфакион. Экали Ekali Экали. Так же сервис служит агрегатором существующих веб-камер. Вы можете добавить или просмотреть доступные веб-камеры для выбранных локаций.

Остров кос гърция карта

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